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  • Best magnesium supplements for sleep
  • Promotes a balanced stress response, feel relaxed and at peace
  • Sleep faster and deeper
  • A key nutrient for healthy immune responses
  • Provides an essential electrolyte to maintain healthy rhythm
  • Provides a key building block to strong bones
Frequently Bought Together


Informed Sports Logo

Informed Sport is a global sports supplement quality assurance and supplement certification program. The presence of the Informed Sport supplement certification on the packaging of a product assures athletes and consumers that:

  • Every batch of a product has been tested for 250+ substances that are prohibited in sports
  • Every product was made in an environment with quality systems appropriate for sports nutrition manufacturing

Why Getting ALL 7 Forms of Magnesium Transforms Your Stress & Performance

One of the biggest misconceptions about magnesium is that you just “need more” of it and you’ll be healthy and optimized.

But the TRUTH is, there are many different types of magnesium — and each plays a critical role in different functions in your body.

Most “healthy” people only get 1-2 forms at best (much of the population is deficient in all forms) — but when you get all 7 major forms of magnesium, that’s when the magic happens.

Magnesium Chelate

This form of magnesium is especially important for muscle building, recovery, and health.

Magnesium Citrate

Supports metabolic health. In fact, one study found that this form may improve blood vessel health in healthy overweight individuals.

Magnesium Bisglycinate

Is the best form of magnesium for muscle and overall relaxation responses.

Magnesium Malate

Some believe this to be the most bioavailable form of magnesium. It’s found naturally in fruits, giving them a “tart taste.”

Magnesium Sucrosomial

This form of magnesium is very well absorbed. It helps you to effectively produce energy. It also supports the immune system and bone health.

Magnesium Taurate

This is the form of magnesium best for your heart.

One study noted: “The complex magnesium taurate may thus have considerable potential as a vascular-protective nutritional supplement.” 

Magnesium Orotate

While also helpful for the heart, magnesium orotate is believed to be the best form for metabolic improvements.

This makes it a favorite for athletes seeking enhanced recovery, energy, and performance. 

Getting ALL of these forms of magnesium, in the optimum dose, upgrades virtually every function in your body.

Ingredients BIOptimizers Magnesium Breakthrough Strength Sensei Quadra Mag Livewell Magwell Zeal Naturals Magnesium Natural Rhythm Triple Calm Magnesium BioEmblem Triple Magnesium Complex Terranics Magnesium Complex Life Extension Magnesium Caps

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Informed Sports Logo

Informed Sport is a global sports supplement quality assurance and supplement certification program. The presence of the Informed Sport supplement certification on the packaging of a product assures athletes and consumers that:

  • Every batch of a product has been tested for 250+ substances that are prohibited in sports
  • Every product was made in an environment with quality systems appropriate for sports nutrition manufacturing


A team of researchers and scientists at the International Burch University in Europe recently performed several bioavailability tests on a variety of magnesium vs. Magnesium Breakthrough.

The Criticalness of BioAvailability

In order for a magnesium supplement to fully optimize your health, it has to be bioavailable. Bioavailability means a compound can cross the cell membrane and actually get inside your cells. 

Testing bioavailability allows us to see whether a magnesium supplement, such as Magnesium Breakthrough, is actually getting inside the cell so it can work its magic. 

Here’s how they tested for bioavailability…

Bioavailability Testing Method:


Red Blood Cells

First, different magnesium supplements are added to red blood cells, which are then incubated for 24 hours. Several other reagents are added before the cells are further treated, centrifuged, and incubated. Once the cells are ready, bioavailability is tested spectrophotometrically using a standard magnesium assay kit.


Table 1: Percentage of Magnesium Supplements Absorbed into Blood Cells

Supplements % Mg absorbed into red blood cells
Sucrosomial Magnesium 0%
Magnesium Orotate 0%
Magnesium Citrate 0%
Magnesium Malate 0%
Magnesium Chelate 5%
Magnesium Taurate 10%
Magnesium Glycinate 12%
Magnesium Breakthrough 16%
Bioavailability of Individual Magnesium Supplements vs. Magnesium Breakthrough Bioavailability of Individual Magnesium Supplements vs. Magnesium Breakthrough

Magnesium Breakthrough, at 16% total absorption, outperformed magnesium glycinate at a 33%.

Furthermore, Magnesium Breakthrough outperformed the magnesium compounds with the lowest absorption rates by a whopping 1600%.

Get Your Magnesium Level To The Optimal Zone

Get Your Magnesium Level To The Optimal Zone

Why Magnesium Breakthrough:

Magnesium is one of the most important minerals for all aspects of health. It participates in over 600 different biochemical reactions in your body. Yet, over 80% of the population don’t get the minimum amounts of the types of magnesium they need from diet alone because US soil lacks it. Magnesium deficiency can increase all disease risks and keep you from performing optimally.

Even people who supplement tend to take types that are poorly absorbed, or they only take two types of magnesium at most. Each type benefits different tissues and organ systems. If you’re only taking one or two forms, you’re most likely still deficient.

BIOptimizers Magnesium Breakthrough is the only supplement on the market that offers the full spectrum of all seven types of magnesium specially formulated to reach every tissue in your body to provide maximum health benefits and reverses low levels which could be causing health issues.

Promotes Healthy Stress and Relaxation Responses

Magnesium is extremely important for mental and neurological health. In humans, a low-magnesium diet is associated with higher risk of mental health issues and unhealthy stress responses. You need magnesium to deal with stress. Stress causes you to excrete more magnesium through urine. Therefore, being deficient can create a vicious cycle.

Magnesium supplementation has been shown to promote a healthy stress response and neurotransmitter balance. It also promotes relaxation by increasing GABA, the calming neurotransmitter.

Magnesium supplements have also been shown to help improve mental health in women with general premenstrual syndrome.

To boost mood and promote a healthy stress response, it is best to use a combination of forms of magnesium combined with vitamin B6. Studies have confirmed that magnesium with organic acid salt (e.g. citrate and malate) or amino acids (e.g. taurate, glycinate, and sucrosomial) are significantly better absorbed than inorganic salts (oxide, chloride, and sulfate). Also, these different forms are absorbed into different tissues, with taurate, malate, and citrate being the most beneficial for the nervous system.

BIOptimizers Magnesium Breakthrough contains the full spectrum of all seven forms of the most bioavailable magnesium along with vitamin B6 to support mental health and promote a healthy stress response.


Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCI), Elemental Magnesium (Magnesium Chelate, Magnesium Bisglycinate, Sucorsomial® Magnesium (as magnesium oxide), Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Taurate, Magnesium Citrate, Humic/Fulvic Monoatomic Blend), Manganese (as manganese citrate)

Other Ingredients: Cellulose (capsule), Nu-Mag®, Nu-Flow®, Silica.

Magnesium Breakthrough Benefits

  1. Promotes Heart Health

    Magnesium is extremely important for heart health and blood vessel health. Magnesium deficiency seems to worsen the inflammation, blood vessel constriction, blood clotting, and stress responses that trigger heart conditions. Correcting deficiency appears to improve heart health and reduces risk of death, although it is unclear whether supplementation alone is sufficient to treat these conditions.

  2. Improves the Ability to Deal With Stress and Helps to Relax

    A magnesium supplement significantly reduces stress in people who are deficient in magnesium. Also, combined with vitamin B6 was 40% more helpful than alone in very stressful situations. Findings support the need for magnesium supplementation for people living in conditions of chronic stress.

  3. Helps With Mood, Cognitive Function, and Mental Health

    A magnesium supplement significantly improved mood after 2 weeks. Another trial found that magnesium supplements improved mood in seniors.

  4. Promotes Healthy Blood Sugar Hormone Function And Promotes Healthy Metabolism

    Magnesium is important for hormones that regulate blood sugar to function well. Therefore, many people with blood sugar issues and metabolic syndrome are deficient in magnesium. Even when the blood sugar is well-controlled, a supplement would still be necessary to achieve healthy levels. In a clinical trial involving 65 diabetes patients, magnesium supplementation promotes healthy function and metabolism.

    A large-scale systematic and dose-response analysis found that magnesium supplementation correlated with reduced body weight and waist circumference among specific groups of people. Participants seemed to weigh less and had smaller waist circumference if they took magnesium supplements.

    Magnesium on its own doesn’t cure blood sugar problems or cause weight loss, but it can be highly beneficial in combination with diet and exercise.

  5. Supports Exercise Performance and Recovery

    Magnesium supplementation improves speed and strength, possibly by making glucose metabolism more efficient. It also supports healthy stress response to exercise, counteracts excessive muscle damage, and improves exercise recovery (400 mg/day, taken at breakfast).

  6. Improves Sleep Quality

    In a small clinical trial involving 46 elderly subjects with sleep struggles, 500 mg of daily magnesium supplement improved sleep quality, sleep latency, and cortisol. Subjects also had more serum melatonin, slept deeper, and were less likely to wake up in the middle of the night.

  7. Builds Stronger Bones

    Magnesium are key building blocks of your bones. Magnesium deficiency can contribute to osteoporosis by:

    • preventing healthy bone formation, creating brittle bones
    • causing low-grade inflammation
    • increasing cortisol, which can contribute to bone loss
    • reducing parathyroid hormone
  8. In a clinical trial involving 73,684 postmenopausal women, low magnesium intake was associated with lower bone density in the hip and whole body. Magnesium intake slightly higher than the Recommended Dietary Allowance was associated with lower arm and wrist fractures from falling.

    While magnesium is essential for bone health, magnesium supplements alone may not cure osteoporosis or osteopenia. Please speak to your doctor for diagnosis and treatments.

  9. Promotes Healthy Blood Pressure

    A meta-analysis of 34 randomized control trials found that magnesium reduced blood pressure. However, the effect size is clinically small (<2 mmHg). Therefore, it may be good for supporting overall health and healthy blood pressure, but you may also need other interventions to achieve healthy blood pressure levels.

  10. Promotes Balanced and Healthy Immune System

    Magnesium deficiencycontributes to increased inflammation and weak immune responses. In a meta-analysis involving 32,198 people, those with more magnesium had less serum C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation).

    Overall, magnesium deficiencies tend to exacerbate or increase the risk of conditions that involve chronic inflammation.

  11. Supports Vitamin D Activation and Metabolism

    Both Vitamin D and magnesium have important roles in bone health, immune function, and metabolism. Magnesium is a cofactor in vitamin D conversion and activation. Some people cannot increase their blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels despite supplementing with vitamin D3 because they are deficient in magnesium. In other words, magnesium deficiency can make vitamin D less effective.

    Also, in people deficient in magnesium, high doses of vitamin D3 could worsen magnesium deficiency and increase the potential for side effects of excessive vitamin D3, such as having calcium deposits in the arteries.

How To Take Magnesium

When you take magnesium in the morning, it supports brain function and stress response throughout the day. In the evening, high doses of magnesium promote relaxation and may help with sleep. Therefore, it is best to divide your magnesium supplement doses throughout the day. If that is not possible, take whenever you can.

It is better to take mineral supplements, such as magnesium, on an empty stomach because you will absorb it more efficiently. However, some people experience upset stomach, so they take it with food.

Studies of inorganic magnesium salts (oxide, chloride, and sulfate) found that stomach acid is necessary for magnesium absorption, so they need to be taken on an empty stomach. However, organic magnesium salts (citrate, glycinate, chelate, etc) are more readily absorbed even when taken with food.

Our bodies don’t store magnesium well. It is generally excreted from your system within 24 hours of intake. Therefore, it is important to take magnesium every day.

Magnesium Breakthrough
Magnesium Breakthrough
Ultimate Sleep System
Ultimate Sleep System
How To Reduce Stress
How To Reduce Stress
Social Situations
Social Situations

Magnesium Breakthrough Questions:

What is the B6 in Magnesium Breakthrough made from?

Vitamin B6 improves magnesium absorption and bioavailability. A clinical study compared the effects of magnesium with magnesium combined with B6. They found that subjects who were going through a lot of stress experienced 24% greater reduction in stress scores with magnesium and vitamin B6 compared with magnesium alone. The vitamin B6 in this product is made from carbohydrate fermentation (not potato starch).

Why does this magnesium supplement have rice in it?

When some ingredients are included in very small quantities (milligrams), a carrier substance is necessary. Stabilized rice flour is a naturally-occuring, hypoallergenic, and non-toxic medium that ensures you absorb these ingredients properly.

If you have a rice allergy, we recommend consulting your physician on whether to try this product. We do have a 90-day refund policy.

Can you empty the contents into your beverage?

Emptying the contents into a beverage/liquid will not alter magnesium absorption in the body but will definitely influence the taste and not in a good way.

We recommend taking Magnesium Breakthrough® with meals due to it’s laxative effect. If taken on an empty stomach, it may cause diarrhea.

What are the benefits of taking Magnesium Breakthrough?
  • 7 types of magnesium makes it the most complete blend available
  • Promotes a healthy stress response
  • Improves sleep quality
  • Supports brain function, memory, and cognitive function
  • Helps muscle building and recovery
  • Boosts exercise performance for athletes, the elderly, and people with suboptimal health
  • Improves mood and mental health
  • Improves blood sugar controll even in people with normal blood levels
  • May relieve some PMS symptoms and promote hormonal wellbeing in women
Is this product safe for children?

No. The recommended daily allowance of magnesium for children 9-12 is 240 mg/day which is lower than included in Magnesium Breakthrough®.

How to take magnesium?

Magnesium Breakthrough is best taken on an empty stomach for best absorption. If you get an upset stomach taking it without food, you may want to take it with some food. The recommended daily dosage is 500 mg of elemental magnesium (2 capsules) for general health.

For maximum relaxation, cognitive, and physical performance, some people experience even more benefits when they gradually step their doses up to 5000 mg/day, broken into a few doses. Our bodies are intelligent and can tell how much magnesium you need if you continue to experience improved relaxation and wellbeing. You can take it at any time that works best for you. Taking it in the morning can boost mood by promoting calmness throughout the day. However, many people take it at night to relax before bed and promote more restful deep sleep.

What is the best magnesium supplement?

Not all magnesium supplements are created equal due to the differences in bioavailability.

Bioavailability correlates with health benefits. If the magnesium doesn’t reach your target tissue, you won’t reap the benefits from it.

Magnesium Breakthrough® provides the most bioavailable combination of different forms of magnesium in the market.

Can you take magnesium when pregnant?

For pregnant women, the German Nutrition Society recommends a daily magnesium intake of 310 mg (slightly above the recommended amount for non-pregnant women over the age of 25). This is in part because hormonal changes during pregnancy cause more magnesium to be excreted through the urine.

Please note that Magnesium Breakthrough is not formulated or tested for pregnant women. It’s best to consult your OB/GYN before introducing any supplements during pregnancy.

How many capsules in a bottle?

60 Capsules in a bottle.

Frequently Asked Questions:

How to take magnesium for sleep?

To support sleep, take on an empty stomach 1 - 2 hours before bedtime.

How much magnesium should I take for sleep?

It depends on how deficient you are and your individual magnesium needs. If you’re under more physical or emotional stress, you may need more than an average person. Physical stressors include exercise and physical jobs. Vitamin D supplementation (which also helps with sleep) may also increase magnesium needs.

The recommended daily allowance for magnesium is ~400 mg/day for men and ~310 mg for women. However, very few people get this dose from food. If you haven’t taken magnesium for a long time and are deficient, taking the RDA dose can be like filling up an empty pool with a spoon. Therefore, it may be a good idea to start at a higher than the RDA dose to correct the deficiency faster.

Studies have shown benefits of magnesium supplementation from 125 mg to 2500 mg/day. You want to start with 1 - 2 capsules and slowly increase the dosage and observe your body’s response. If you have kidney problems or are on medications that may affect mineral balance (e.g. hypertension medication), it is important to speak to your physician before introducing a magnesium supplement.

Which magnesium is best for relaxation and sleep?

Magnesium chelate, glycinate, citrate, and malate can promote relaxation and sleep. Magnesium Breakthrough contains all of these forms of magnesium.

What can make you deficient in magnesium?
  • Mental/emotional stress
  • Hard physical exertions
  • Caffeine intake
  • Being diabetic, or obese
  • High doses of vitamin D supplementation
  • Calcium and other mineral supplements
  • An unhealthy diet with a lot of processed foods
  • Alcoholism
  • Stomach acid-reducing drugs
  • Bisphosphonate drugs for osteoporosis
  • Some antibiotics
  • Diuretic drugs and blood pressure-reducing drugs
  • Kidney disease
  • Old age
  • Gut issues that affect magnesium absorption, such as Celiac and colitis

If you have a medical condition or are taking medications, consult your physician before introducing any supplements or getting off the medications.

What foods are high in magnesium?

These foods could be high in magnesium if they’re grown in soil that contains it. However, due to modern agricultural practices, most soils are low in magnesium.

  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Dark chocolate
  • Avocado
  • Nuts and seeds
Is magnesium better for sleep than melatonin?

Magnesium does different things than melatonin. Melatonin is a nighttime hormone that tells your body it is time to sleep. Whereas, magnesium helps promote a relaxation response as you find down to sleep. There is time and place for both. However, taking high-dose melatonin more than what your body produces (0.35 mg/night) can override your body’s own circadian response. Whereas, taking magnesium provides nutritional insurance to prevent deficiency, which will improve all aspects of health.

Are There Any Side Effects from Magnesium?

Excessive doses of magnesium can cause stomach upset and diarrhea. However, these are much more common with inorganic salts (oxide, chloride, and sulfate) than organic salts (glycinate, chelate, sucrosomial, malate, taurate, etc).

Should You Start Taking Magnesium For Sleep?

Everyone should take magnesium given that the modern lifestyle depletes it and the modern diet doesn’t provide enough. If you have suboptimal sleep, such as taking a long time to fall asleep, waking up tired, or feeling tired in the afternoon, magnesium may help improve your sleep quality.

Imagine your body’s magnesium reserves as a bucket for a minute…

And the bucket is empty.

The first step is to refill your bucket.

Most people’s magnesium reserves are severely depleted.  It’s almost impossible to keep your magnesium levels in an optimal zone with food alone.

That’s why supplementing with Magnesium Breakthrough has changed hundreds of thousands of lives.

Once your bucket is loaded, then you go back down to a maintenance dosage of 2 to 3 capsules a day.

Magnesium Breakthrough is an absolute game-changer for reducing stress.  Our magnesium loading program has transformed the lives of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.  It helps shift your nervous system into a “relaxation mode.”  It helped me go from burnt out to zen.

Here’s the magnesium loading program that was given to us by Charles Poliquin, and it produces magical results..

We suggest slowly ramping up the dosage for six weeks. At this point, your body’s magnesium levels will be optimal. Then you can go back down to a maintenance dose.

Capsules Per Dose Week 1 (Daily) Week 2 (Daily) Week 3 to 6 (Daily)
Morning AM 1 1 1
Afternoon PM 1 1 2
1 Hour before Bed 1 2 2
Per Day 3 4 5
Per Week 21 28 35

First 4 Weeks (Month) = 119 Capsules

Capsules Per Dose (Daily)
Morning AM 1
Afternoon PM 1
1 Hour before Bed 2
Per Day 4
Per Week 28

Monthly Maintenance = 112 Capsules

Be aware that when you increase your Magnesium Breakthrough dose, it may disrupt your digestive system because magnesium draws water.  Reduce the dosage by 1 capsule if that happens.  And once you're adapted, you can try increasing the dose again.

  • Made in USA
  • GMP Certified
  • Manufacturing COA
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Product Information

Product Dimensions:

  • Cap diameter: 1.5 inches
  • Bottom diameter: 2 inches
  • Height: 4 inches
  • Weight: 3.05 ounces


Keep out of reach of children. As with any product, discontinue immediately if adverse effects occur. Please consult a physician before beginning any new supplement, diet, training program, or if you are undergoing treatment of a medical condition.


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BiOptimizers Was Born From Pain And Passion.

Wade’s passion and mission for helping others optimize their health started when he witnessed his 23-year-old sister pass away from cancer. It was a heart-breaking experience that shaped his destiny. That’s when he realized that health was the most precious asset we have in this life.

Matt’s passion and purpose for helping others started when he helped his best friend lose 191 lbs in 18 months. He watched his friend’s entire life transform as a result. He went from never having a girlfriend to being married in just a couple of years.

Wade Lightheart

Wade Lightheart


Matt Gallant

Matt Gallant

Chief Executive Officer

Wade and Matt were both trainers working with pro athletes and other high performers. They both spent a decade in the gym helping people transform their health. Wade and Matt met in the gym, struck a friendship and then started a business partnership that has been going strong since 2004.

That’s right, we started selling fitness programs, digestive enzymes and organic plant-based protein in 2004. Our obsession to build the best-in-class formulas and solutions just gets stronger. Our policy is, “If we can’t build the best product in that category, forget about it.”

We’re willing to go ALL IN on the formulas. What does this mean? Our average cost per bottle is 200% to 400% higher than most of our competitors. We use the optimal, effective doses of the most researched ingredients. We know that once you experience the results, you’ll be a fan of BiOptimizers for life.

Matt & Wade
Matt & Wade


Scientific Studies
  1. de Baaij JH, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2015;95(1):1-46. doi:10.1152/physrev.00012.2014
  2. DiNicolantonio JJ, Liu J, O'Keefe JH. Magnesium for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Open Heart. 2018;5(2):e000775. Published 2018 Jul 1. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2018-000775
  3. Boyle NB, Lawton C, Dye L. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017;9(5):429. Published 2017 Apr 26. doi:10.3390/nu9050429
  4. Pouteau E, Kabir-Ahmadi M, Noah L, et al. Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia: A randomized, single-blind clinical trial. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0208454. Published 2018 Dec 18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208454
  5. Eby GA, Eby KL. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):362-370. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.01.047
  6. Tarleton EK, Littenberg B, MacLean CD, Kennedy AG, Daley C. Role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression: A randomized clinical trial. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0180067. Published 2017 Jun 27. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180067
  7. Botturi A, Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Boscutti A, Viscardi B, Brambilla P. The Role and the Effect of Magnesium in Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1661. Published 2020 Jun 3. doi:10.3390/nu12061661
  8. Barragán-Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial. Magnes Res. 2008;21(4):218-223.
  9. Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, González-González G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004;30(3):253-258. doi:10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70116-7
  10. Takaya J, Higashino H, Kobayashi Y. Intracellular magnesium and resistance. Magnes Res. 2004;17(2):126-136.
  11. Schnack C, Bauer I, Pregant P, Hopmeier P, Schernthaner G. Hypomagnesaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is not corrected by improvement of long-term metabolic control. Diabetologia. 1992;35(1):77-79. doi:10.1007/BF00400855
  12. Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):1147-1152. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.4.1147
  13. Askari M, Mozaffari H, Jafari A, Ghanbari M, Darooghegi Mofrad M. The effects of magnesium supplementation on obesity measures in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 11]. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;1-17. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1790498
  14. Asemi Z, Karamali M, Jamilian M, et al. Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(1):222-229. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.098616
  15. Zhang Y, Xun P, Wang R, Mao L, He K. Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?. Nutrients. 2017;9(9):946. Published 2017 Aug 28. doi:10.3390/nu9090946
  16. Córdova A, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Roche E, Caballero-García A, Fernandez-Lázaro D. Impact of Magnesium Supplementation in Muscle Damage of Professional Cyclists Competing in a Stage Race. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1927. Published 2019 Aug 16. doi:10.3390/nu11081927
  17. Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(12):1161-1169.
  18. Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, Maier JA. Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):3022-3033. Published 2013 Jul 31. doi:10.3390/nu5083022
  19. Orchard TS, Larson JC, Alghothani N, et al. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(4):926-933. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.067488
  20. Zhang X, Li Y, Del Gobbo LC, et al. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2016;68(2):324-333. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07664
  21. Tam M, Gómez S, González-Gross M, Marcos A. Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(10):1193-1197. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601689
  22. Moslehi N, Vafa M, Rahimi-Foroushani A, Golestan B. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on inflammatory markers in middle-aged overweight women. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(7):607-614.
  23. Kim DJ, Xun P, Liu K, et al. Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, resistance, and the incidence of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):2604-2610. doi:10.2337/dc10-0994
  24. Nielsen FH. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives. J Inflamm Res. 2018;11:25-34. Published 2018 Jan 18. doi:10.2147/JIR.S136742
  25. Uwitonze AM, Razzaque MS. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2018;118(3):181-189. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2018.037
  26. Sartori SB, Whittle N, Hetzenauer A, Singewald N. Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: modulation by therapeutic drug treatment. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(1):304-312. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.07.027
  27. Jacka FN, Overland S, Stewart R, Tell GS, Bjelland I, Mykletun A. Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health Study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43(1):45-52. doi:10.1080/00048670802534408
  28. Grases G, Pérez-Castelló JA, Sanchis P, et al. Anxiety and stress among science students. Study of calcium and magnesium alterations. Magnes Res. 2006;19(2):102-106.
  29. Takase B, Akima T, Uehata A, Ohsuzu F, Kurita A. Effect of chronic stress and sleep deprivation on both flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery and the intracellular magnesium level in humans. Clin Cardiol. 2004;27(4):223-227. doi:10.1002/clc.4960270411
  30. Boyle NB, Lawton C, Dye L. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017;9(5):429. Published 2017 Apr 26. doi:10.3390/nu9050429
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