What Is the Best Magnesium for Blood Pressure?
Magnesium is a crucial nutrient for the proper functioning of the human body, and about 48% of Americans may not get enough of it . Years of research suggest a connection between low magnesium and high blood pressure. Magnesium plays a key role in regulating blood pressure, making it a guardian against hypertension. This article…
Magnesium is a crucial nutrient for the proper functioning of the human body, and about 48% of Americans may not get enough of it . Years of research suggest a connection between low magnesium and high blood pressure. Magnesium plays a key role in regulating blood pressure, making it a guardian against hypertension.
This article examines the impact of magnesium on blood pressure and the best types to keep your heart healthy.
How Does Magnesium Help Reduce Blood Pressure?
In this section, we’ll investigate how magnesium plays a pivotal and beneficial role in managing blood pressure and uncover the underlying mechanisms involved.
Magnesium plays a crucial role in controlling blood vessel function. It regulates the tone of blood vessels, which helps them relax more easily and reduces the constriction caused by certain substances.
Now, let’s explore the research findings to better understand the impact of magnesium on blood pressure and the mechanisms involved.
Acts As a Natural Calcium Channel Blocker
Your blood vessels have smooth muscles around them. These muscle cells control your blood vessel constriction, which in turn manages your blood pressure. This constriction requires calcium to signal, whereas magnesium antagonizes the calcium.
Magnesium can block a special door (called a calcium channel) in the muscle cells that let calcium in and out, affecting how tight or relaxed the blood vessels are .
- If there is less magnesium, the muscles have more calcium, making blood vessels tighter and blood pressure higher.
- If there is more magnesium, there is less calcium, making blood vessels more relaxed and lowering blood pressure.
The endothelium is the inner lining of your blood vessels and plays a critical role in blood flow and blood pressure. It does this in two ways :
- Vasodilation: relaxation and widening of blood vessels
- Vasoconstriction: constricting blood vessels
The endothelium regulates these processes by producing:
- Nitric oxide, (a gas) and prostacyclin (a lipid-based molecule), which widen blood vessels
- Endothelin-1, a small protein which constricts blood vessels.
This is where magnesium is essential. Magnesium ions directly boost the production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin, enhancing their ability to widen blood vessels.
Magnesium also regulates how your blood vessels respond to endothelin-1. An animal study investigated magnesium’s impact on blood vessels. Researchers found that higher magnesium levels reduced blood vessel contractions in response to endothelin-1, thus improving their ability to relax.
What Type Of Magnesium Is Good For High Blood Pressure?
It’s important to note that supportive but inconclusive scientific evidence suggests that diets with adequate magnesium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension), a condition associated with many factors.
Magnesium is present in various food sources, such as:
- Dark green leafy vegetables
- Almonds and cashews
- Dark chocolate
- Peanut butter
These foods may be high in phytates and other plant substances that bind up magnesium, making it more difficult to absorb.
Also, our soils now have less magnesium due to intensive agriculture, chemical fertilizer use, and soil erosion .
With inadequate soil mineral levels, crops have lower nutrient contents, including magnesium. This makes getting adequate amounts of magnesium through your diet harder. Turning to supplements, like Magnesium Breakthrough, can help you meet optimal intake levels.
Let’s look at the different types of magnesium that may help support healthy blood pressure. You may have heard of two numbers like 120/80, which are systolic and diastolic blood pressure numbers, respectively.
- Systolic blood pressure (SBP): the higher of the two numbers in a blood pressure reading represents the pressure in arteries during the heart’s contraction.
- Diastolic blood pressure (DBP): the lower number in a blood pressure reading reflects the pressure in arteries when the heart rests between beats.
Blood pressure studies focus on the changes in these two numbers.
Studies on magnesium citrate highlight its ability to reduce resting and post-exercise blood pressure levels effectively and have potential benefits during pregnancy.
In a study with 13 participants, subjects took 300 mg/day of magnesium citrate for either one or four weeks. Their average baseline magnesium intake was 368 – 375 mg of elemental magnesium. Magnesium significantly lowered both resting and post-exercise systolic blood pressure, as the differences were observed within 2 days.
Whereas, the chronic supplementation (4 weeks) group had a reduction in DBP two days after the training session. Taking magnesium right before exercise was more effective than long-term supplementation at reducing blood pressure during exercise and at rest.
Another study of 59 Swedish pregnant women aimed to evaluate whether magnesium supplementation would prevent increased blood pressure during pregnancy. Women took either a placebo or 300 mg of magnesium citrate from week 25 until delivery. While there was no significant difference in SBP at week 37, DBP was reduced for those taking magnesium.
Although magnesium oxide is a poorly absorbed form of magnesium, it’s the most-studied form that has demonstrated some effectiveness.
In a study of 16 young men, participants took either a placebo or 300 mg of magnesium oxide (formula weight) for 14 days. Researchers took their blood pressure before and after exercise. Those taking magnesium supplements had significantly lower blood pressure after exercise and rest than those without.
Magnesium users demonstrated a significant 8.9 mmHg drop in average resting blood pressure and a 13 mmHg reduction post-exercise. After a brief rest, their blood pressure remained 11.9 mmHg lower than the non-magnesium group.
Another study of 60 subjects (average age of 58 years) explored if magnesium oxide could change blood pressure measured at the doctor’s office, at home, and during daily activities. Subjects took a placebo or 480 mg of elemental magnesium as magnesium oxide daily for eight weeks.
Magnesium significantly reduced daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure both in-office and at home, but not at night. Here are the detailed results :
- Individuals with very high blood pressure (SBP ≥134 mm Hg/DBP ≥81 mm Hg) experienced more substantial improvements, with a 5.3 mmHg reduction in SBP and a 2.7 mmHg reduction in DBP.
- In contrast, those with lower blood pressure saw smaller average decreases of 0.4 mmHg in SBP and 0.4 mmHg in DBP.
Magnesium glycinate is one of the most bioavailable forms of magnesium , even more so than previously discussed magnesium citrate and oxide. However, there are fewer clinical trials that use magnesium glycinate.
While no direct data shows magnesium glycinate reduces blood pressure, we know it may help manage your stress response. And with stress comes increased pulse and blood pressure. Reducing your stress levels can support healthier blood pressure.
A systematic review of 18 studies explored the effects of magnesium on stress. The results suggested magnesium may effectively reduce stress; however, more controlled trials are needed to confirm its effectiveness.
Magnesium pidolate is another highly bioavailable form of magnesium that studies show may effectively lower blood pressure in people with hypertension.
In an eight-week study involving 18 older subjects with hypertension, subjects took 379 mg of magnesium pidolate daily. Supplementation led to a significant drop in blood pressure, with systolic decreasing from 171 to 159 mm Hg and diastolic decreasing from 95 to 89 mm Hg. Magnesium supplementation also increased magnesium serum levels by 1.98 to 2.35 mmol/L.
Similarly, a 12-week study explored the effects of magnesium pidolate on 48 subjects with mild hypertension. Those taking 600 mg/day of magnesium pidolate saw a small but clinically meaningful decrease in their blood pressure and increased serum magnesium levels.
SBP decreased by 5.6 units and DPB by 2.8 units more than in the group that didn’t take extra magnesium. Intracellular magnesium increased by .3 mmol/L.
Magnesium Aspartate HCl
Magnesium aspartate HCl combines magnesium with aspartic acid, and the added hydrochloride enhances absorption.
A study of 39 adults explored how magnesium aspartate HCl can change blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Subjects took a total of 365 mg of elemental magnesium as magnesium aspartate HCl daily for eight weeks.
Researchers measured subjects’ blood pressure after standing up or lying down. Supplementing with magnesium increased serum magnesium levels and significantly decreased systolic blood pressure while lying down and standing.
Another study focused on the effects of magnesium aspartate on 91 women with high blood pressure. They took 485 mg of elemental magnesium as magnesium aspartate daily for six months. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.7 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure dropped by 3.4 mm Hg in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group.
Magnesium Hydroxide may help lower blood pressure by calming down the body’s stress response system and helping the body get rid of extra salt through urine. It’s very alkaline and sometimes used as antacids.
A study of 33 adults set out to explore the effects of magnesium hydroxide on blood pressure. Subjects took 548 mg of elemental magnesium daily for four weeks. While there was no difference in diastolic blood pressure, those taking magnesium had significantly lower systolic blood pressure after two and four weeks than those without. The magnesium group also had higher sodium excretion.
A controlled study of 15 adults with high blood pressure explored the effects of magnesium hydroxide on lower blood pressure. Participants took 360mg, 720mg, or 960mg of magnesium daily for three weeks. Those taking 960 mg of magnesium experience the greatest reduction in both DBP and SBP.
An important aspect of this study is that researchers also tracked magnesium levels. As soon as subjects’ magnesium levels reached 30 mmol, SBP and DBP decreased. Over the three weeks, those supplementing with magnesium dropped an average of 8 mmHg in both SBP and DBP.
Research notes that magnesium taurate has “considerable potential as a vascular-protective nutritional supplement.”
A four-week animal study investigated magnesium taurate’s protective and blood pressure-lowering effects. Subjects took 2 or 4 mg/kg of magnesium. Those treated with magnesium taurate had better blood pressure and heart health markers than those not.
Researchers note that magnesium taurate protects the heart tissues and could be a helpful supplement for heart health.
You probably noticed there are a lot of different types of magnesium that can potentially lower blood pressure. So, how do you get them all? We recommend taking a full-spectrum magnesium supplement like Magnesium Breakthrough. While it doesn’t have every one of the forms we covered, it does have seven major forms of magnesium and many of the ones we discussed.
How Much Magnesium Should You Take to Lower Blood Pressure?
Supplement labels and nutritional bodies typically advocate for a magnesium consumption of approximately 320 mg of elemental magnesium, in line with the FDA’s recommended dietary allowance.
However, this guideline is crafted with the nutritional needs of generally healthy individuals, overlooking the potential impact of biochemical individuality and existing health conditions. In fact, several clinical trials mentioned above exceeded the 320 – 420 mg RDA.
The bottom line is that how much magnesium you need depends on your current magnesium levels. Check out this article for the best tests to determine your magnesium levels. Work with your health practitioner to determine the best dose for your needs.
You may need more if you are deficient. Learn more about the factors that increase the likelihood of being deficient in this article.
Can You Take Too Much Magnesium?
As we just covered, your magnesium needs may require you to take more or less than someone else. While the FDA states that magnesium supplements shouldn’t contain more than 350 mg, the studies we covered above contain a range from 300 to 960 mg of magnesium without any adverse effects. It’s all about finding what’s best for you.
A meta-analysis of 22 studies, including 1,173 participants, determined that the blood pressure-lowering effects of magnesium are more significant when supplemental magnesium intake exceeds 370 mg/day.
Check out this article for more information on if 500 mg of magnesium is too much.
How Quickly Does Magnesium Reduce Blood Pressure?
Based on the above studies, participants experience a reduction in blood pressure in as little as one week in subjects without high blood pressure to just three weeks in those with hypertension .
How quickly magnesium can effectively support your blood pressure depends on various individual factors, such as current magnesium and potassium status.
Magnesium helps support healthy blood pressure by acting as a natural calcium channel blocker, regulating blood vessels, and enhancing endothelial function.
- Consider various magnesium types discussed above for healthy blood pressure levels already within normal range
- Take a magnesium supplement daily like Magnesium Breakthrough, which contains seven types of magnesium to help ensure optimal magnesium absorption.
Work with a healthcare professional to test your magnesium levels and determine your correct dosage.
- Hatzistavri, L. S., Sarafidis, P. A., Georgianos, P. I., Tziolas, I. M., Aroditis, C. P., Zebekakis, P. E., Pikilidou, M. I., & Lasaridis, A. N. (2009). Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 22(10), 1070–1075.
- Kass, L. S., Skinner, P., & Poeira, F. (2013). A pilot study on the effects of magnesium supplementation with high and low habitual dietary magnesium intake on resting and recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and systolic blood pressure. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 12(1), 144–150.
- Mu, Y.-P., Huang, Q.-H., Zhu, J.-L., Zheng, S.-Y., Yan, F.-R., Zhuang, X.-L., Sham, J. S. K., & Lin, M.-J. (2018). Magnesium attenuates endothelin-1-induced vasoreactivity and enhances vasodilatation in mouse pulmonary arteries: Modulation by chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Experimental Physiology, 103(4), 604–616.
- Shrivastava, P., Choudhary, R., Nirmalkar, U., Singh, A., Shree, J., Vishwakarma, P. K., & Bodakhe, S. H. (2019). Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive albino rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines, 9(2), 119–123.