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Why Magnesium Matters In Fertility

Fertility challenges are becoming increasingly common, with subfertility and infertility on the rise. When Dr. Aumatma Simmons, ND of the Holistic Fertility Institute first began her work in the field over a decade ago, approximately one in eight women aged 18 to 35 faced difficulties conceiving.  Today, that number has surged, with one in five…

Fact checked by Nattha Wannissorn

Fertility challenges are becoming increasingly common, with subfertility and infertility on the rise. When Dr. Aumatma Simmons, ND of the Holistic Fertility Institute first began her work in the field over a decade ago, approximately one in eight women aged 18 to 35 faced difficulties conceiving. 

Today, that number has surged, with one in five to one in six women in this age group struggling with fertility. Amidst this growing trend, Dr. Simmons has found remarkable success in improving outcomes through enhanced nutrition and lifestyle changes, especially for subfertile couples. 

One overlooked element in the fertility equation is magnesium. In this article, we explore why magnesium matters in fertility and how it can support you in your effort to conceive. Understanding the role of magnesium can help you make informed dietary and lifestyle choices to enhance your fertility journey.

Does Magnesium Intake and Level Affect Fertility?

Magnesium is involved in over 600 biochemical reactions in the body, influencing nearly every cell and system. Because of its extensive role, it’s no surprise that you need magnesium to conceive and grow a healthy baby.

A study of over 1,000 women, 204 of which were struggling with fertility, explored their nutrient intake. The higher the magnesium intake, the lower the risk of infertility. Those with magnesium intake over 350 mg had the lowest risk. This was true for women in both normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) and high BMI (> 24.9 kg/m2) ranges.

Along with magnesium, researchers identified higher intake of the following as associated with lower infertility risk:

  • Iron
  • Lycopene
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Carbohydrates


  • This study evaluated nutrient intake from food and correlated the estimated magnesium intake with fertility. Also, food sources of magnesium are plants. It’s a correlation, not causation. There may be other explanations for this finding, such as eating more plants leads to a lower risk of infertility.
  • Infertility and subfertility are complex, and their causes can vary a great deal from case to case. Only some of these causes relate to nutrition. For example, some couples may have genetic or autoimmune issues, while others have metabolic issues interfering with fertility.

You can learn more about essential nutrients for fertility in this article.

Another study highlights the importance of healthy magnesium levels for fertility. In a study involving twelve women, after four months of 600 mg/day elemental magnesium supplementation, six did not reach normal red blood cell magnesium levels. All six also had low glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), an enzyme that helps prevent oxidative damage.

To boost GSH-Px, researchers gave women 200 μg selenium and oral magnesium for two additional months. After treatment, magnesium and GSH-Px normalized, and all 12 women successfully conceived and gave birth to healthy babies within eight months.

Further research examined the relationship between blood magnesium levels and the probability of becoming pregnant in 99 women. They found that the likelihood of pregnancy increased by 51.5% with each 3.60 μg/L increase in blood magnesium.

Magnesium also appears to play a role in the success of IVF pregnancies. A study of 144 women undergoing IVF explored the role of magnesium in pregnancy success. Serum magnesium was higher in women who had successful IVF than those who did not.

Similarly, women who achieved spontaneous pregnancies had higher magnesium levels compared to the unsuccessful IVF group. Based on these results, researchers recommended ensuring optimal magnesium levels before undergoing reproductive treatment.

Please note that the above studies show associations between magnesium intake and fertility, not causations. More controlled studies are needed to determine the exact relationship. 

How Magnesium Affects Fertility

Hormone Balance

Guiding everything from the first menstrual cycles of puberty to the intricacies of ovulation, implantation, and pregnancy, hormones are the conductors of human reproduction.

At the start of each menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, prompting the shedding of the endometrial lining. As the cycle progresses, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) encourages ovarian follicle growth, leading to a rise in estrogen levels that dampen FSH production.

A surge in Luteinizing Hormone (LH), triggered by peak estrogen levels, signals ovulation and the release of a mature egg. In the luteal phase following ovulation, the transformed follicle, now the corpus luteum, produces progesterone and some estrogen, preparing the endometrial lining for potential implantation.

FSH and LH play essential roles in regulating follicle development and ovulation, while estrogen and progesterone from the follicles and corpus luteum create optimal conditions in the endometrium for a fertilized egg.

Maintaining a delicate hormonal balance is essential for fertility, and disturbances in this balance can lead to unexplained infertility. Magnesium plays a vital role in supporting this balance.

Sex Hormones (Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone)

Magnesium is essential for producing and regulating steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Here are some ways it does this: 

Firstly, all steroid hormones are made from cholesterol and produced in different body parts.  This conversion is facilitated by enzymes that require magnesium as a cofactor. The next steps, oxidation, and isomerization, transform pregnenolone into progesterone; these processes also depend on magnesium to function efficiently.

Magnesium also helps convert androstenedione (a precursor) to estrone (a type of estrogen) in the ovaries. Adequate magnesium levels are necessary for maintaining estrogen balance and preventing excess or deficiency.

Furthermore, magnesium supports the synthesis of progesterone, which is essential for maintaining a healthy uterine lining during the menstrual cycle. Low progesterone levels can lead to a short luteal phase and suboptimal uterine lining.

Finally, magnesium contributes to the enzymatic reactions involved in testosterone production. It helps maintain optimal free testosterone levels, which are crucial for both male and female reproductive health. A deficiency in magnesium may lead to imbalances in testosterone levels.

FSH Stimulation

FSH is important in stimulating the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in the ovaries. Researchers explored the relationship between magnesium and FSH using animal follicles. 

They found that magnesium (Mg2+) significantly increases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) binding to its receptors on granulosa cells, enhancing the hormone’s effectiveness in these cells. Granulosa cells are specialized cells in the ovaries that surround developing eggs and are crucial for their growth and development.

Magnesium also boosts the activity of adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to FSH, further amplifying the hormone’s effects. Adenylyl cyclase converts ATP (a molecule that stores energy) into cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts as a messenger in many biological processes, including the action of FSH.

Researchers demonstrated magnesium’s importance using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), a compound that binds magnesium. When it binds to magnesium, EDTA effectively removes magnesium from the system and hinders its participation in biochemical reactions.

When EDTA depleted magnesium, FSH binding was impaired. This experiment highlights that FSH cannot efficiently bind to its receptors without magnesium, emphasizing magnesium’s critical role in this process.


Optimal thyroid function is crucial for fertility, and magnesium is key in maintaining this function. Magnesium is essential for converting the inactive thyroid hormone (T4) into its active form (T3). This conversion is critical for the thyroid to function correctly.

Low magnesium levels are linked to suboptimal thyroid functions.

A study of over 1,200 participants explored the relationship between magnesium levels and thyroid function. Those with deficient magnesium levels (≤0.55 mmol/L) had the highest risk of suboptimal thyroid function.

Thyroid hormones are not just crucial for metabolism, but also for developing tissues that are essential for fertility, such as the uterine lining, egg development, sperm production, and fetal growth.


Insulin plays an important role in fertility. It regulates glucose metabolism and supports ovarian function, including the development and maturation of eggs (oocytes) and the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. This is why suboptimal metabolic health can be a big contributor to fertility issues.

A recent review of studies exploring the relationship between insulin, blood sugar control, and fertility found insulin response in your muscles, fat, and liver can become suboptimal due to diet and lifestyle choices.

This can contribute to fertility issues in both genders in several ways:

  • Increasing oxidative stress, which can damage DNA and reduce the quality of eggs and sperm
  • Disrupting energy metabolism is required for forming healthy eggs and sperm, or growing the uterine lining for implantation
  • Leading to hormone imbalances that affect the odds of conception hormone secretion critical for pregnancy.

Magnesium is an essential nutrient for insulin response and carbohydrate metabolism. A meta-analysis of 21 studies explored the role of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Magnesium doses ranged from 280-600 mg daily and were in various forms.

Researchers determined that supplementing with magnesium for at least four months significantly improved blood sugar control in those with suboptimal blood sugar response already within the normal range.


Dubbed “stress hormone,” cortisol is a steroid hormone that regulates metabolism, stress responses, immune function, and various physiological processes. 

While normal levels are necessary for reproductive health, too much cortisol for too long may disrupt hormonal balance and potentially impact fertility. This is why stress management is crucial for healthy conception and pregnancy.

A review of studies explored the relationship between cortisol and fertility. Overall, researchers determined that while some studies link high cortisol levels to infertility, the relationship is complex and influenced by various factors.

Cortisol’s effects on fertility involve intricate hormonal pathways and feedback mechanisms. For instance, excessive cortisol may disrupt hormone release, leading to irregular ovulation and decreased chances of pregnancy. However, individual resilience to stress and cortisol’s effects can vary, making it challenging to establish a universal link between cortisol and infertility.

If you are someone for whom cortisol levels are a factor, magnesium may help support healthy cortisol levels. A study of 49 men and women explored magnesium’s ability to break down cortisol after stressful situations, helping to restore balance afterward.

Participants took 350 mg of magnesium citrate daily for six months. Those taking magnesium had lower cortisol levels in their urine, suggesting their kidneys were breaking down cortisol more effectively.

You can learn more about the role of magnesium in hormone balance in this article.  

Additional Benefits of Magnesium for Fertility 

The benefits of magnesium extend beyond just the hormonal aspects of fertility. Numerous other factors contribute to successful conception, and magnesium plays a crucial role in many of them.

Combats Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress is the enemy of fertility.

It refers to excess oxidative species that can oxidize (or rust) your cells, blood vessels, eggs, and sperms, along with their DNA, proteins, and fats. When oils go rancid or metals rust, they’re oxidized. 

Too much oxidative stress in your body can:

  • Reduce sperm and egg quality, so they’re less functional and less likely to fertilize.
  • Break DNA in eggs and sperm, reducing their fertilizing potential
  • Impact the growth and quality of eggs
  • Hinder embryo development and implantation
  • Throw off the immune system both in the uterus and throughout the body
  • Increase the risk of miscarriage
  • Contribute to other reproductive conditions 

Magnesium plays a crucial role in antioxidant pathways. Typically, your body’s antioxidant defense system helps protect against these free radicals, but without enough magnesium, this system gets weaker.

A study of 503 women with unexplained fertility highlights the importance of antioxidants, like magnesium, in fertility. Women took dietary supplements containing antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-carotene, and vitamin E.

Women with a BMI less than 25 got pregnant faster when they took more vitamin C. Women with a BMI of 25 or higher got pregnant faster when they took more β-carotene. Women under 35 had a shorter TTP with more β-carotene and vitamin C, while women 35 and older had a shorter TTP with more vitamin E.

Relaxes Smooth Muscle Wall 

Magnesium plays a direct role in relaxing the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus. This can create a more favorable environment for embryo implantation. 

The uterus undergoes regular rhythmic contractions during the menstrual cycle to shed its lining and prepare for implantation. Excessive contractions can interfere with implantation. If you want to get pregnant, you want the uterus to be in an optimal state to receive the embryo or sperm. 

Magnesium may help facilitate implantation by reducing uterine tension and relaxing uterine muscles. It does this by reducing calcium uptake, which is essential for muscle contraction, thereby promoting relaxation.

Researchers investigated the effects of treating uterine cells with SucrosomialⓇ and bisglycinate magnesium on contractions. Magnesium ions started entering the cells after 10 minutes and continued up to 3 hours. Both types of magnesium helped the uterine cells relax, with magnesium bisglycinate being slightly more effective.

Stress Management 

When you’re on the journey to conceive, stress can easily seep into the experience. While some stress is entirely normal and sometimes healthy, it may impact your chances of conception if it becomes too much. To understand how stress affects fertility, let’s examine two essential systems in the body: the HPA Axis and the HPG Axis.

The HPA Axis, comprising the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands, is the body’s stress management system. On the other hand, the HPG Axis, involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries or testes), regulates reproductive functions. These two systems might seem unrelated, but they have a reciprocal relationship.

When one system, whether it’s the stress-managing HPA Axis or the reproductive-controlling HPG Axis, is activated, it can influence the functioning of the other.  For instance, when stress activates the HPA Axis, it can disrupt the delicate balance of reproductive hormones controlled by the HPG Axis, affecting reproductive health. Conversely, reproductive hormones can also influence stress responses.

A review of 36 studies focused on the effects of stress in IVF. Researchers found that stress can make IVF treatments less successful, affecting different stages of the process.

  • During egg retrieval, both long-term and short-term stress significantly impairs the process.
  • Chronic stress primarily affects transferring the embryo into the uterus, with minor effects on fertilization.
  • Short-term stress has minimal impact on both embryo transfer and pregnancy rates.

According to a 2024 review of studies exploring the impact of stress on male fertility, researchers found that stress leads to the release of a hormone called gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). This hormone can:

  • Cause testicular cell damage
  • Disrupt hormone production in the testicles and adrenal glands
  • Affect the process of making sperm (spermatogenesis) and reduce sperm quality.

Not all studies, however, have found a negative association between stress and sperm quality. While one study of over 600 men found no change in semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, another study found that increased cortisol, “the stress hormone,” improved sperm count and movement. 

Magnesium may play a role in supporting fertility by promoting a healthy stress response. A study of 44 women explored the effects of magnesium on nervousness and mood associated with premenstrual syndrome. Women took 200 mg of magnesium oxide, 50 mg of vitamin B6, or both daily for one menstrual cycle.

Those taking the magnesium and B6 combination saw improvement in their mood and calmness.


Getting high-quality sleep is critical for both your emotional and physical well-being. This also stands for fertility.  While more research is needed, here are some ways that researchers believe poor sleep may contribute to problems with fertility

  • Hormonal Imbalance: Insufficient sleep disrupts the delicate balance of reproductive hormones crucial for fertility, potentially hindering conception and overall reproductive health.
  • Stress and Sleep Dysregulation: Poor sleep quality raises stress levels, interfering with reproductive processes and hormone regulation, making conception more challenging.
  • Circadian Rhythm Disruption: Irregular sleep patterns disrupt the body’s internal clock, which regulates hormone release, potentially interfering with fertility due to misaligned circadian rhythms.

A study of 100 magnesium-deficient adults explored the effect of magnesium on sleep quality. Participants took 320 mg of magnesium citrate daily for seven weeks. Compared to those without magnesium, those taking magnesium experienced improved sleep quality.

Does Magnesium Help Male Infertility Too?

Fertility isn’t just a female issue; it involves men, too. Dr. Aumatma emphasizes that both partners should be part of the fertility process. Up to 50% of cases of infertility stem from the male, and the quality of male sperm continues to decrease.

Magnesium plays an important role in sperm quality and development. While we’ve already discussed some of the benefits of magnesium in male fertility above, let’s take a look at a couple of male-focused studies:

A study explored the nutritional factors in male fertility. Researchers found that compared to men with normal fertility, infertile males had lower levels of:

  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Calcium
  • Selenium

If a man experiences low testosterone levels, it can affect fertility by decreasing sperm production and indirectly by reducing sex drive. One study explored the effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone in sedentary and physically active men.

Participants took 10 mg/kg of body weight (4.5 mg/lb) of magnesium sulfate daily for four weeks. Magnesium supplementation increased free and total testosterone levels in sedentary individuals and athletes. The increases were even more pronounced in those who exercised regularly than sedentary individuals.

How Do I Know If I’m Getting Enough Magnesium?

The best way to know whether your magnesium levels are optimal is by getting your serum levels tested. Knowing how much magnesium is floating around in your bloodstream doesn’t give you a good idea of how much goes into your cells. It also doesn’t indicate whether your cells have enough magnesium to complete their necessary functions.

Magnesium needs change throughout your life and are dependent on many factors, including

  • Phenotypic (physical and biochemical characteristics)
  • Medical
  • Lifestyle characteristics
  • Eating habits and behaviors

For optimal fertility, you should strive for overall body balance. When it comes to magnesium, that translates to magnesium serum levels of 1.82 to 2.30 mg/dL (0.75–0.95 mmol/L) in the normal range.

How Much Magnesium Should I Take?

The FDA recommends magnesium doses of 410-420 mg for men and 320-360 mg for women, increasing to 400 mg for pregnant women. These guidelines, however, are for the nutritional needs of healthy individuals without existing health conditions. Many people may need more.

How much magnesium you should take depends on your magnesium status. If you’re magnesium deficient, you’ll likely need a higher dose. Check out this article if you’re wondering whether taking 500 mg of magnesium or more is too much. 

It’s critical to remember that individual responses to magnesium levels can vary. Each person’s fertility situation is unique and influenced by a range of factors, including genetics, overall health, lifestyle, and specific medical conditions. 

Magnesium plays various roles in reproductive health, such as hormone regulation, ovulation, and sperm production. However, how your body absorbs and utilizes magnesium can differ, which means that what works for one person might not work for another.

Consulting with a healthcare professional is crucial. They can provide tailored recommendations based on a thorough evaluation of your individual health status, medical history, and specific fertility challenges. This personalized guidance can help optimize magnesium levels and support reproductive health more effectively.


Fertility challenges are becoming more common, but understanding the role of nutrients like magnesium may make a difference in your fertility journey. Optimal overall health is essential for conception and growing a healthy baby. Magnesium is essential for optimal everything, including hormone balance, egg and sperm quality, and overall reproductive health. Consider taking the following steps:

  • Get your red blood cell magnesium tested.
  • Talk to your healthcare provider about whether incorporating a magnesium supplement would be a good choice to support your fertility journey.
  • Track any changes in your health and fertility status. Regularly consult your healthcare provider to adjust your diet, supplements, and lifestyle habits.
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